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Himalaaja, Karakorum, Pamiir , Hindu-Kush, Tiibet, ajalugu tabelina

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Buddhist nuns.jpg
Dates Event Details
ca. 563 B.C Birth of Siddhartha Gautama, the "Buddha" In north India at Lumbini near the Himalayan foothills.
343-323 BC Aleksander Suur jöuab Kesk-Aasiasse ja Indiasse.
206 BC -
220 AD
Han Dynasties in China Actually 3 Han Dynasties in this period.
138-125 BC Zhang Qian (Chang Ch'ien) in Bactria. Travels to Pamirs. First Chinese on record to have heard about the existence of Tien-chu, or Tianzhu (India). Reported "discovery" to Emperor Wu.
68 Cai Yin travels to India from China. Sent by Han emperor, Mingdi, to learn about Buddhism. returns after 3 years with images of Buddha, Buddhist scriptures and two Buddhist monks, She-mo-teng and Chu-fa-lan, to preach in China.
105 Invention of paper in China
166 First Roman envoy sent to China Sent by Marcus Aurelius due to importance of trade on Silk Road. Arrived safely.
399-413 Faxian (Fa-hsien) travels from central China, over Taklamakan Desert to India. Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, in search of sacred manuscripts, who wrote of his travels.
455 Rome is sacked by the Vandals
476 Romulus Augustus deposed Last Roman Emperor in the West. Effective end of Roman Empire.
527-1453 Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire Begins with reign of Justinian, ends with fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks in 1453.
589-617 Sui Dynasty in China
618-907 Tang Dynasty in China The height of the "Silk Road" was achieved during this dynasty.
629-645 Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsiang) travels to India 16 year round trip, including extensive travels in India to visit Buddhist shrines and collect religious manuscripts.
632 Death of Mohammed
643, 648,
657 & 664
Wang Xuan-ce travels from China to Nepal & India Chinese diplomat. Made four trips. Took passes through Nepal, rather than Pamirs, reducing travel time to 9 months.
747 Gao Xianzhi (Kao Hsien-chih) leads Chinese army of 10,000 overland from Central China to north Pakistan/Kashmir Through Kyrgistan, Uzbekistan, across Pamirs and Hindu Kush to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Kashmir in an attempt to stem the flow of Islam from West to East Turkestan.
960-1279 Sung Dynasty in China Divided into Northern and Southern Song. Split was forced by abandonment of north China in 1127 due to invaders.
1160-1173 Rabbai Benjamin of Tudela Travels from Spain, through Syria, Bagdad, Persia and to frontiers of China.
1206 Assembly of Mongolian tribes at Karakorum Agreed to unite under Genghis Khan
1215 Genghis Khan captures Beijing
1245-47 Giovanni Pianô Carpine travels overland to Karakorum Sent by Pope Innocent IV to court of Great Mogol.
1253-1255 William of Rubruck travels overland to Karakorum Sent by Louis IX to court of Great Mogol.
1267 Kublai Khan makes Beijing his capital city. Names it Daidu meaning great capital.
1271 / 1295 Marco Polo trips to China Overland to China, through Tibet from Turkey
1279-1368 Yuan Dynasty in China established by Kublai Khan. End of Sung Dynasty. Was Mongol dynasty.
1325-1354 Ibn Battuta travels From Tangier, East Africa, Iraq, Persia, India, Maldives, Malaysia & China.
1327 Oderico of Pordenone in Tibet Franciscan friar. From Beijing through Tibet. Disputed whether he visited Lhasa.
1368-1644 Ming Dynasty in China
1398 Tamerlane (Timur) sacks Delhi
1453 Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks End of Byzantine Empire. Establishes Ottoman Empire, which ended in 1924.
1488 Bartholomeu Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope First Europeans to round the southern tip of Africa
1492 Columbus first reaches America
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas Pope defined boundary line between Portugese and Spanish territories.
1498 Vasco da Gamma reaches Calicut, on south west coast of India. First European to reach India by sea. Returned to India in 1502. Goa was made capital of Portugese possessions in India in 1510.
1517 Portugese first reach China. Reach Canton under Fernao Peres.
1519-22 Magellan's first circumnavigation
1526 Beginning of the Mughal (a.k.a Mogul or Mongol) Dynasty in India Started with Babur's defeat of Ibrahim, the Sultan of Delhi at Panipat in the Punjab.
1558 Anthonie Jenkinson reaches Bokhara First from Britain, overland via Russia
1577-1580 Sir Francis Drake's circumnavigation
1588 British defeat of Spanish Armada
1600 Honourable East India Company Chartered By Queen Elizabeth I
1602-1605 Bento de Goes travels in Tartary from Agra, via Lahore, Kabul, Yarkland, Aksu, Turfan, Chami, Su-cheu
1607 Third Voyage of East India Company First voyage for which India was an object of the venture.
1612-1616 Thomas Coryat walks to Agra Visits court of Great Mogul. Walks from Aleppo, across Persia and Afghanistan.
1624 Andrade & Marques travel to Tibet First visit to Tsaparang
1625-1635 Catholic Mission in Tsaparang, Tibet Established by Andrade & de Sousa on 2nd visit to Tsaparang.
1628-1632 Catholic Mission in Shigatse, Tibet Established by Cacella & Cabral.
1631 Azevedo crosses Himalaya Reaches Leh by Mani Pass and returns to India by Baralacha and Rohtang Passes.
1644-1911 Qing or Manchu Dynasty in China
1661-1662 Grueber & d'Orville Trip through Tibet Overland from Beijing to Agra via Tibet and Lhasa. First undisputed Europeans to reach Lhasa. (See Oderico of Pordenone, 1327).
1682-1725 Peter the Great Tsar of Russia
1702 Catholic missions in Nepal & Tibet assigned to Capuchins Papal decree
1707-11 First Capuchin mission in Lhasa
1712-27 Desideri & Freyre Trip through Tibet Delhi, Srinagar, Leh, Lhasa, Kutti, Agra (1716 Freyre returns from Lhasa). In Lhasa 1716-1721
1716 Signing of the "farman". Laid foundation for British rights, leading to territorial occupation of India.
1716-33 Second Capuchin mission in Lhasa
1717 Bekovich expedition to Khiva Disaster.
1729-30 Samuel Van de Putte through Lhasa Dutch. Overland from India to Beijing, via Lhasa (return via same route). Destroyed records, other than sketch map.
1735 D'Anville's Atlas of China published in final volume of Du Halde's, Description geographiqe, historiqe, politique et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chioise. First European map of Tibet. Much of the Tibetan surveying done by Chinese trained by Europeans.
1739 Nadir Shah occupies and sacks Moghul capital, Dehli. Makes off with "Peacock Throne" and the Koh-I-nur diamond . Moghul empire in decline.
1741-45 Third Capuchin mission in Lhasa
1757 Clive's victory at Battle of Plassey Settled conflict between French and British. Secured British power over Bengal.
1765 British acquisition of the diwani to Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. i.e., revenue rights, from Moghul Emporer resulting in administration of large new territories
1767 Captain Kinloch dispatched to Kathmandu to aid Newar king against Gurkha aggression. Failed mission. Left in rainy season, were hampered by malaria, and ran short of supplies.
1768 Gurkhas occupy Kathmandu valley
1768-1771 Captain James Cook's 1st voyage 2nd voyage: 1772-75; 3rd voyage: 1776-1779.
1772 Warren Hastings appointed governor-general of India
1774-1775 George Bogle in Tibet First British citizen to cross Himalaya into Tibet.
1775-1783 American War of Independence
1782 Rennell's Map of Hindoostan first published.
1783-1784 Samuel Turner in Tibet Visited Tashilhunpo / Shigatse.
1785 Cornwallis replaces Hastings as governor-general
1786 Mont Blanc first climbed. Highest mountain in Europe.
1788 Nepal invades Tibet Tibetans sued for peace and agreed to pay Gurkhas annual indemnity to withdraw.
1789-99 French Revolution Bastille stormed July 14 1789
1791 Second Nepalese invasion of Tibet Shigatse captured and Tashilhunpo sacked.
1792 Chinese intervene in Tibet to drive out Gurkhas (Re)-Established Chinese influence in Tibet, which was not weakened until Japanese defeat of Chinese in1895.
1793 Kirkpatrick mission to Nepal
1793 Parliament establishes Board of Control of East India Company Obtains power to approve Governor General
1800 Malcolm's mission to Persia To secure treaty against the French.
1801-03 Charles Crawford in Nepal. Surveys and maps Kathmandu Valley, as well as makes small map of Nepal, based on information from native travelers.
1802 Regular mail ervice begins between England & India
1808 Webb, Raper and Hearsey survey source of eastern branch of Ganges.
1809 Capt. W.P. Grant explores coastline of Makran. To determine feasibility as overland route for invasion of India. Concluded it was.
1809 Metcalf's treaty with Ranjit Singh Extends British influence to Sutlej.
1810 Pottinger and Christie's exploration in Baluchistan, southern Afghanistan and then on to Persia
1811-1812 Thomas Manning in Lhasa First Englishman to visit Lhasa.
1812 Moorcroft & Hearsey in western Tibet
1813 Russian annexation of Georgia
1814-1816 Anglo-Nepalese War Prompted by repeated forays by Gurkhas into British held territories. Treaty of Segauli (I believe signed on November 28 1815 but not ratified by Nepalese until March, 1816) ceded territories of Kumaon and Garhwal in western Nepal to the British, giving them their first common border with Tibet.
1817 Treaty of Titalia Negotiated by Captain Latter, in Feb. 1817, following Anglo-Nepalese war, guaranteed security of Sikkim by British, returned land to Sikkim that had been annexed by Nepalese, and gave British trading rights in Sikkim, up to Tibetan border.
1818-22 Alexander Csoma de Körösi travels from Hungary to Ladakh Meets Moorcroft
1819 Ranjit Singh conquers Kashmir & Jammu End of Afghan rule of Kashmir.
1819 Nikolai Muraviev travels from Georgia to Khiva Report on Russian slaves contributed to Russian justification for future annexation of khanates in central Asia.
1819-25 Moorcroft & Trebeck travel to Turkistan Reach Bokhara in 1824 via Ladakh, Kashmir, Punjab, Kabul.
1820 Russians reach Bokhara Beat English by 4 years. Establish trade links.
1823 Sikhs defeat Durranis and capture Peshawar (Durranis are group of Pashtoon who live in the area around the city of Qandahar)
1824 Moorcroft & Trebeck reach Bokhara First Englishman there.
1825 Stockton & Darlington Railroad Company in Britain First railroad to carry both goods and passengers on regular schedules using locomotives designed by George Stephenson
1824-1826 First Anglo-Burmese War Ceded territory of Assam to British.
1830 First road in India Bombay to Poona
1832 Burnes trip to Bukhara visits Peshawar, en route
1836 Dost Mohammed becomes Amir of Afghanistan
1836 Lord Auckland becomes Governor-General
1837 Burnes mission to Kabul
1837 Persia besieges Herat
1837 Queen Victoria ascends to throne
1837-37 Wood explores upper Oxus River
1839 Perovsky's expedition to Khiva Force of 5,00 from Orenburg. Disaster. Defeated by winter, and retreated en route with heavy losses.
1839 Death of Ranjit Singh
1839-1842 First Anglo-Afghan War Refs:
1840 Abbott in Khiva From India, then on to St. Petersburg
1840 Start of Grand Trunk Road Calcutta to Delhi
1840 Shakespear frees Russian slaves in Khiva
1841-42 War between Tibet and state of Jummu and Kashmir. (Latter states not yet under British control.)
1842 Stoddart & Conolly killed by Emir of Bokhara
1842 Mail Steamship to India from Britain
1842 British acquire Hong Kong Changes British access to China, which up to this point had been restricted to being through Canton, which had made access to China through Tibet attractive.
1842 Darjeeling linked to plains by military road
1843 Dost Mohammed resumes throne in Afghanistan Following flight in 1839 and exile in India in 1840.
1845-1846 First Anglo-Sikh War Resulted in Treaty of Lahore, which granted Britain all Sikh hill possessions between Sutlej and Indus. Followed 1 week later by Treaty of Amritsar, which granted included territories of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh to Gulab Singh. Refs:
1844-6 Abbe Huc & Gabet Tartary - China Traveled through Tibet. In Lhasa in 1846
1848-1849 Second Anglo-Sikh War Ref: 1, 2. Ended in the Treaty of Annexation.
1850-1858 Construction of the Hindustan-Tibet road Went from Indian plains, through Simla (the summer capital of British India), Bashahar, to Shipki, on Tibetan border.
1852 Second Anglo-Burmese War Ref;
1853 First railways and telegraph in India
1853-56 Crimean War France and Britain defeat Russia.
1857 Sepoy Revolt / Indian Mutiny
1858 British Government takes over governing India Lord Canning, then Governor General, becomes first Viceroy.
1858 Bahadur Shah II exiled to Burma Last of the 17 Mogul Emperor. Dies in 1862.
1860 Russia opens consulate in Kashgar
1861-65 US Civil War
1865 First ascent of the Matterhorn Golden age of climbing in Europe.
1865 First telegraph system opens between Europe and India
1865-67 Yakob Beg establishes control over "Kashgaria" Establishes Muslim state in what was Chinese Turkistan
1866 Bokhara invaded by Russians 1868 becomes Russian protectorate
1868 Samarkand fell to Russians
1868-69 1st trip of Pundit Mirza India - Kabul - Pamirs - Kashgar - Yarkland - India
1869 Shaw and Hayward in Yarkland and Kashgar Shaw is first from Britain to visit.
1870 Direct submarine cable from India to Britain Establishes secute and rapid communications
1870 Opening of Suez Canal Britain buys Egypt's 40% share to secure access, esp. to India. Now 3 weeks, rathe than 3 months to India from Britain.
1870 1st Forsyth Mission To Kashgar to establish trade with Yakob Beg. Failure
1870-73 Przhevalsky's first expedition
1871 Russians annex Ili
1873 Khiva falls to Russians gain navigational control over lower Oxus
1873 2nd Forsyth Mission To Kashgar to establish trade with Yakob Beg. Resulted in valuable surveying.
1874 Disraeli becomes Prime Minister of Britain Switch to aggressive forward policy
1878-80 Second Anglo-Afghan War Refs:
1881-83 Russian, Dr. Regel exploring in Pamirs
1884 Russian occupation of Merv
1885-6 Lockhart Surveys Determined the feasibility of Russian invasion through Hindu Kush
1886 Britain annexes Upper Burma
Burma-Tibet Convention
Chinese claimed suzerainty. Completed British control of Burma, which began with the Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–26.
1887 Younghusband's east-west trip from China to India Beijing - Gobi Desert - Kirghiz - Kashgar - Yarkland - Mustagh Pass - Kashmir - Srinagar
1888 Trans-Caspian railroad extended to Samarkand
1888 British forces drive Tibetan troops out of Sikkim
1889 Younghusband and Gromchevsky meet on frontier north of Hunza.
1890 Convention Between Great Britain and China Relating to Sikkim and Tibet Defined Sikkim-Tibet frontier, and established British control over Sikkim. Between Britain and China (significantly, not Tibet.)
1894 Conway exploring in Karakoram To Hispar Pass, along the Biafo and Baltero Glaciers, K2, Skardo
1894 Dutreuil de Rhins killed in Western Tibet
1894-95 Sino-Japanese War Japanese defeat Chinese. This opened door, for the first time since the Chinese intervention in the Gurkha-Tibetan conflict in 1792, for Tibet to attempt to conduct its own foreign policy.
1894-5 Littledales travel in Tibet Travel east from Kashgar, through northern Tibet, then south to within 45 miles of Lhasa, then turned back.
1895 Anglo-Russian Convention Established the Wakham Strip of Afghanistan separating Russian and British territories.
1895 Mummery, Ragobir & Goman Singh killed on Nanga Parbat
1898 (?) Kawaguchi in Lhasa Japanese monk. Entered monastery in Lhasa.
1898-1902 Aguan Dorjief's missions to St. Petersburg Russian Buddhist monk from Lhasa
1899-1902 Boer War
1900 Boxer uprising in China Against European acquisition of ports and trade. Put down by joint European forces.
1904-5 Younghusband Mission to Lhasa British invasion of Tibet
1904-5 Russo-Japanese War Japanese want to stem Russian influence in Pacific.
1905 Lhasa Convention British settlement with Tibet.
1906 Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet (Peking Treaty) British and China over Tibet.
1907 Convention Between Great Britain and Russian End of classical "Great Game" in Central Asia.